Publications by Year


+Durwood, L., +Gallagher, N., Sifre, R., & Olson, K.R. (accepted). A Study of Parent-Reported Internalizing Symptoms in Transgender Youth Before and After Childhood Social Transitions. Clinical Psychological Science.
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Fast, A. A., Ravi, S., & Olson, K. R. (2023). When it is better to give than to receive: Children's giving and happiness. Social Development, 00, 1–19.

Vasquez, K., Tompkins, R., Olson, K. R., & Dunham, Y. (2023). Children’s memory for gender-neutral pronouns. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 227, 105589.

Wittlin, N. M., Kuper, L. E., & Olson, K. R. (2023). Mental Health of Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth.


deMayo, B., Jordan, A. E., & Olson, K. R. (2022) Gender Development in Gender Diverse Children. Annual Review of Developmental Psychology.  

Olson, K. R., Durwood, L., Horton, R., Gallagher, N. M., & Devor, A. (2022). Gender Identity 5 Years After Social Transition. Pediatrics.
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Durwood, L., Kuvalanka, K. A., Khan-Samuelson, S., Jordan, A. E., Rubin, J. D., Schnelzer, P., Devor, A. H., & Olson, K. R. (2022). Retransitioning: The experiences of youth who socially transition genders more than once. International Journal of Transgender Health. 1-19. 10.1080/26895269.2022.2085224  

Gülgöz, S., Edwards, D. L., & Olson, K. R. (2022). Between a boy and a girl: Measuring gender identity on a continuum. Social Development, 1–14. 
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deMayo, B., Kahn-Samuelson, S., & Olson, K. R. (2022). Endorsement of gender stereotypes in gender diverse and cisgender adolescents and their parents. PloS one17(6), e0269784.
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Fast, A. A., Morelli, S. A., Zaki, J., & Olson, K. R. (2022). Mutual identification promotes children’s generosity. Infant and Child Development31(3). 


Glazier, J. J., Gomez, E. M., & Olson, K. R. (2021). The association between prejudice toward and essentialist beliefs about transgender people. Collabra: Psychology. 7(1).

Atwood, S., & Axt, J. R. (2021). Assessing implicit attitudes about androgyny. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 96, 104162. 
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Gülgöz, S., Alonso, D. J., Olson, K. R., & Gelman, S. A. (2021). Transgender and cisgender children’s essentialist beliefs about sex and gender identity. Developmental Science, 24, e13115.
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Seager van Dyk, I., Shao, J., Sohn, L., Smiley, P. A., Olson, K. R., & Borelli, J. L. (2021). Responding to children’s diverse gender expression: Validation of a parent-report measure of gender-related conditional regard. Journal of GLBT Family Studies17(5), 482–500.

Durwood, L., Eisner, L., Fladeboe, K. et al. Social Support and Internalizing Psychopathology in Transgender Youth. J Youth Adolescence 50841–854 (2021).

Gibson, D. J., Glazier, J. J., & Olson, K. R. (2021). Evaluation of anxiety and depression in a community sample of transgender youth. JAMA Network Open4(4), e214739.


Enright, E. A., Alonso, D. J., Lee, B. M., & Olson, K. R. (2020). Children’s Understanding and Use of Four Dimensions of Social Status. Journal of Cognition and Development, 1-30.
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Rubin, J. D., Atwood, S., & Olson, K. R. (2020). Studying Gender Diversity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences24(3), 163-165.
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Glazier, J. J., Gülgöz, S., & Olson, K. R. (2020). Gender encoding in gender diverse and gender conforming children. Child Development91(6), 1877–1885.

Skinner, A. L., Olson, K. R., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2020). Acquiring group bias: Observing other people’s nonverbal signals can create social group biases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology119(4), 824–838.

Rubin, J. D., Gülgöz, S., Alonso, D., & Olson, K. R. (2020). Transgender and cisgender children’s stereotypes and beliefs about others’ stereotypes. Social Psychological and Personality Science11(5), 638–646.

Mandel, G. N., Olson, K. R., & Fast, A. A. (2020). Debunking intellectual property myths: cross-cultural experiments on perceptions of property. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2020(2), 219-274.


Rubin, J.D., Gülgöz, S, Alonso, D., & Olson, K.R. (2019). Transgender and cisgender children’s stereotypes and beliefs about others’ stereotypes. Social Psychological & Personality Science. [Advanced online publication]
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Gülgöz, S., Glazier, J. J., Enright, E. A., Alonso, D. J., Durwood, L. J., Fast, A. A., Lowe, R., Ji, C., Heer, J., Martin, C. M., & Olson, K. R. (2019). Similarity in Transgender and Cisgender Children’s Gender Development. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1909367116
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Gülgöz, S., DeMeules, M., Gelman, S. A., & Olson, K. R. (2019). Gender essentialism in transgender and cisgender children. PLOS ONE, 14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224321
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Olson, K.R., *Blotner, C., ^Alonso, D., ^Lewis, K., & *Durwood, L. (2019). Family discussions of early childhood social transitions. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 7(3), 229-240

Rae, J. R., Gülgöz, S., Durwood, L., DeMeules, M., Lowe, R., Lindquist, G., & Olson, K. R. (2019). Predicting Early-Childhood Gender Transitions. Psychological science30(5), 669-681. 
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Gülgöz, S., Gomez, E. M., DeMeules, M. R., & Olson, K. R. (2018). Children’s evaluation and categorization of transgender children. Journal of Cognition and Development, 19, 325-344. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2018.1498338
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Hagá, S., Olson, K. R., & Garcia-Marques, L. (2018). The Bias Blind Spot Across Childhood. Social Cognition36(6), 671-708.

Fast, A., & Olson, K. R. (2018). Gender development of preschool transgender children. Child Development, 89(2), 620-637.

Rae, J. R., & Olson, K.R. (2018). Test-retest reliability and predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test in Children. Developmental Psychology, 54(2), 308-330.

Olson, K.R., & Enright, E. (2018). Do transgender children (gender) stereotype more or less than their peers and siblings? Developmental Science, 21(4), e12606.

Olson, K.R., & Gülgöz, S. (2018). Early Findings from the TransYouth Project: Gender Development in Transgender Children. Child Development Perspectives, 12(2), 93-97.


Hagá, S., & Olson, K. R. (2017). Knowing-it-all but still learning: Perceptions of one’s own knowledge and belief revision. Developmental Psychology, 53(12), 2319-2332.

Skinner, A.L., Meltzoff, A.N., & Olson, K.R. (2017). “Catching” social bias: Exposure to biased nonverbal signals creates social biases in preschool children. Psychological Science, 28(2), 216-224.

Beck, L.A., Clark, M. S., & Olson, K.R. (2017). When do we offer more support than we seek? A conceptual replication and developmental extension. Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 34(5), 662-675
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Fast, A. A., Olson, K.R., & Mandel, G. N. (2017). Intuitive intellectual property law: A nationally-representative test of the plagiarism fallacy. Plos One12(9), e0184315 doi:
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Durwood, L., McLaughlin, K.A., & Olson, K. R. (2017). Mental health and self-worth in Socially-Transitioned Transgender Children. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(2), 116-123.

Fast, A. A. and Olson, K. R. (2018), Gender Development in Transgender Preschool Children. Child Dev, 89: 620-637. doi:10.1111/cdev.12758
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Haga, S., & Olson, K.R. (2017). “If I only had a little humility, I would be perfect”: Children’s and adults’ perceptions of intellectually arrogant, humble, and diffident people. Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(1), 87-98.


Fast, A., Olson, K.R., & Mandel, G. N. (2016). Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights. Law and Human Behavior, 40(4), 458-476.
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Mandel, G. N., Fast, A. A., & Olson, K. R. (2016). Intellectual Property Law’s Plagiarism Fallacy. Brigham Young University Law Review, 915-983.
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Martin, A. Lin, K., & Olson, K. R. (2016). What you want vs. what’s good for you: Paternalistic motivation in children’s helping behavior. Child Development, 87(6), 1739-1746.

Olson, K.R. (2016). Prepubescent transgender children: What we do and do not know. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(3), 155-156.e3

Olson, K.R., Durwood, L., DeMeules, M., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Mental health of transgender children who are supported in their identities. Pediatrics, 137 (3), 1-8.

Olson, K.R., Durwood, L, DeMeules, M., & McLaughlin, K.A. (2016). Author response to McKean, VandeVoort, and Croarkin. Pediatrics, 138(1), e20161203B.

Shutts, K., Brey, E. L., Dornbusch, L. A., Slywotzky, N., & Olson, K. R. (2016). Children use wealth cues to evaluate others. PLOS One, 11 (3), e0149360.

Dunham, Y., & Olson, K. R. (2016). Beyond discrete categories: Studying multiracial, intersex, and transgender children will strengthen our science. Journal of Cognition and Development, 17(4), 642-665.


Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2015). Whose idea is it anyway?: The importance of reputation in acknowledgement. Developmental Science, 18, 502-509.

Martin, A. & Olson, K. R. (2015). Beyond good and evil: What motivations underlie children’s prosocial behavior. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 159-175.

Rae, J. R., Newheiser, A., & Olson, K. R. (2015). Diversity and implicit race bias in the United States. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 535-543.

Olson, K.R., Key, A. C., & Eaton, N. R. (2015). Gender cognition in transgender children. Psychological Science, 26, 467-474.


Yang, F., Shaw, A., Garduno, E., & Olson, K. R. (2014). No one likes a copy-cat: A cross-cultural investigation of children’s response to plagiarism. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 121, 111-119.

Newheiser, A. & Olson, K. R. (2014). Is the inherence heuristic needed to understand system justifying tendencies among children? Commentary. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(5), 496-497.

Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Fairness as partiality aversion: The development of procedural justice in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 119, 40-53.

Shaw, A., Montinari, N, Piovesan, M, Olson, K. R., Gino, F., & Norton, M. I. (2014). Children develop a veil of fairness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 363-375.

Leimgruber, K. L., Ward, A. F., Widness, J., Norton, M. I., Olson, K. R., Gray, K., & Santos, L. R. (2014). Give what you get: Capuchin monkeys (Cebus paella) and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes to conspecifics. PlosONE, 9(1): e87035 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087035.

Newheiser, A., Dunham, Y., Merrill, A., Hoosain, L., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Preference for High Status Predicts Implicit Outgroup Bias Among Children From Low-Status Groups. Developmental Psychology, 50 , 1081-1090.

Li, V., Spitzer, B., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Preschoolers reduce inequality while favoring advantaged individuals. Child Development, 85, 1123-1133.

Horwitz, S., Shutts, K., & Olson, K.R. (2014). Social class differences produce social group preferences. Developmental Science, 17, 991-1002.

Hagá, S., Garcia-Marques, L., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Too young to correct: A developmental test of the three-stage model of person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 994-1012.

Dunham, Y., Newheiser, A., Hoosain, L., ^Merrill, A., & Olson, K. R. (2014). From a different vantage: Intergroup attitudes among children from low- and intermediate-status racial groups. Social Cognition, 32, 1-21.

Roediger, H. L., Meade, M. L., Gallo, D. A., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Bartlett revisited: Direct comparison of repeated reproduction and serial reproduction techniques. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 266-271.


Shaw, A., Li, V., & Olson, K. R. (2013). Reputation is everything. In M.R. Banaji & S. Gelman (Eds). Navigating the Social World: What infants, children, and other species can teach us. New York: Oxford University Press.

Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2013, July 13). All inequality is not equal: Children correct inequalities by using resource value. Frontiers in Emotion Science.

Olson, K. R., Heberlein, A. S., Kensinger, E., Burrows, C., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). The role of forgetting in undermining good intentions. PlosONE, 8 (11), e79091. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079091

Martin, A., & Olson, K. R. (2013). When kids know better: Paternalistic helping in 3-year-old children. Developmental Psychology, 49(11), 2071-2081. doi: 10.1037/a0031715

Li, V., Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2013). Ideas versus labor: What do children value in artistic creation? Cognition127, 38-45.

Hailey, S., & Olson, K. R. (2013). A social psychologist’s guide to the development of racial bias. Social and Personality Psychology Compass,7(7), 457-469.


Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2012). Children discard a resource to avoid inequality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General141, 382-395.

Shaw, A., DeScioli, P., & Olson, K. R. (2012). Fairness versus favoritism in children. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 736-745.

Shaw, A., Li, V., & Olson, K. R. (2012). Children apply principles of physical ownership to ideas. Cognitive Science, 36, 1383-1403.

Olson, K. R., Shutts, K., Kinzler, K. D., & Weisman, K. G. (2012). Children associate racial groups with social class: Evidence from South Africa. Child Development, 83, 1884-1899.

Newheiser, A., & Olson, K. R. (2012). White and Black children’s implicit intergroup bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 264-270.

Leimgruber, K. L., Shaw, A., Santos, L. R., & Olson, K. R. (2012) Young children are more generous when others are aware of their actions. PLoS ONE, 7(10): e48292. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048292


Olson, K. R. & Shaw, A. (2011). “No fair, Copycat!”: What children’s response to plagiarism tells us about their understanding of ideas. Developmental Science, 14, 431-439.

Olson, K. R., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2011). Children’s responses to group-based inequalities: Perpetuation and rectification. Social Cognition, 29, 271-288.


Olson, K. R., & Shutts, K. (2010). Social cognitive development. In I. B. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds). Corsini’s Encyclopedia of Psychology. (pp 1621-1623). John Wiley and Sons.

Olson, K. R., & Dunham, Y. (2010). The development of implicit social cognition. In B. Gawronski & B. K. Payne (Eds). Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition. (pp 241-254). Guilford Press.

Lambert, A.J., Scherer, L, Schott, J.P., Olson, K. R., Andrews, R. O’Brien, T., & Zisser, A. (2010). Rally effects, threat, and attitude change: An integrative approach to understanding the role of emotion.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 886-903.

Hill, B. M., Monroy Hernandez, A., & Olson, K. R. (2010). Responses to remixing on a social media sharing website. Proceedings of 4th International Association for the Artificial ICWSM (pp. 74-81.) Retrieved from


Olson, K. R. & Dweck, C. S. (2009). Social cognitive development: A new look. Child Development Perspectives, 3, 60-65.


Banaji, M. R., Baron, A., Dunham, Y., & Olson, K. R. (2008). The development of intergroup social cognition: Early emergence, implicit nature and sensitivity to group status. In M. Killen and S. R. Levy (Eds.) Intergroup Attitudes and Relations in Childhood Through Adulthood. (pp. 87-104). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Olson, K. R., Dunham, Y., Dweck, C.S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2008). Judgments of the lucky across development and culture. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology94, 757-776.

Olson, K. R. & Dweck, C. S. (2008). A blueprint for social cognitive development. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 193-202.

Olson, K. R., & Spelke, E. S. (2008). Foundations of cooperation in preschool children. Cognition, 108, 222-231.

Dunham, Y., & Olson, K. R. (2008). The importance of origins: Why cognitive development is central to a mature understanding of social cognition. The Open Psychology Journal, 1, 59-65.


Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., Olson, K. R., Chugh, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 36-88.


Olson, K.R., Banaji, M. R., Dweck, C. S., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Children’s bias against lucky vs. unlucky people and their social groups. Psychological Science, 17, 845-846.

Mazzocco, P.J., Brock, T.C., Brock, G.J., Olson, K.R., & Banaji, M.R. (2006). The cost of being Black: White Americans’ perceptions and the question of reparations. Du Bois ReviewSocial Science Research on Race,3 , 261-297.


Olson, K.R., Lambert, A. J., & Zacks, J. M. (2004). Graded structure and the speed of category verification: On the moderating effects of anticipatory control for social vs. nonsocial categories. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 239-246.