Publications by Topic



+Durwood, L., +Gallagher, N., Sifre, R., & Olson, K.R. (accepted). A Study of Parent-Reported Internalizing Symptoms in Transgender Youth Before and After Childhood Social Transitions. Clinical Psychological Science.
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Wittlin, N. M., Kuper, L. E., & Olson, K. R. (2023). Mental Health of Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth.


Olson, K. R., Durwood, L., Horton, R., Gallagher, N. M., & Devor, A. (2022). Gender Identity 5 Years After Social Transition. Pediatrics.
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Gülgöz, S., Edwards, D. L., & Olson, K. R. (2022). Between a boy and a girl: Measuring gender identity on a continuum. Social Development, 1–14. 
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deMayo, B., Kahn-Samuelson, S., & Olson, K. R. (2022). Endorsement of gender stereotypes in gender diverse and cisgender adolescents and their parents. PloS one17(6), e0269784.
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Gülgöz, S., Alonso, D. J., Olson, K. R., & Gelman, S. A. (2021). Transgender and cisgender children’s essentialist beliefs about sex and gender identity. Developmental Science, 24, e13115.

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Rubin, J. D., Atwood, S., & Olson, K. R. (2020). Studying Gender Diversity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences24(3), 163-165.
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Rubin, J.D., Gülgöz, S, Alonso, D., & Olson, K.R. (2019). Transgender and cisgender children’s stereotypes and beliefs about others’ stereotypes. Social Psychological & Personality Science. [Advanced online publication]
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Gülgöz, S., Glazier, J. J., Enright, E. A., Alonso, D. J., Durwood, L. J., Fast, A. A., Lowe, R., Ji, C., Heer, J., Martin, C. M., & Olson, K. R. (2019). Similarity in Transgender and Cisgender Children’s Gender Development. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1909367116
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Gülgöz, S., DeMeules, M., Gelman, S. A., & Olson, K. R. (2019). Gender essentialism in transgender and cisgender children. PLOS ONE, 14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224321

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Olson, K.R., *Blotner, C., ^Alonso, D., ^Lewis, K., & *Durwood, L. (2019). Family discussions of early childhood social transitions. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 7(3), 229-240

Rae, J. R., Gülgöz, S., Durwood, L., DeMeules, M., Lowe, R., Lindquist, G., & Olson, K. R. (2019). Predicting Early-Childhood Gender Transitions. Psychological science30(5), 669-681.

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Gülgöz, S., Gomez, E. M., DeMeules, M. R., & Olson, K. R. (2018). Children’s evaluation and categorization of transgender children. Journal of Cognition and Development, 19, 325-344. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2018.1498338

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Fast, A., & Olson, K. R. (2018). Gender development of preschool transgender children. Child Development, 89(2), 620-637.

Olson, K.R., & Enright, E. (2018). Do transgender children (gender) stereotype more or less than their peers and siblings? Developmental Science, 21(4), e12606.

Olson, K.R., & Gülgöz, S. (2018). Early Findings from the TransYouth Project: Gender Development in Transgender Children. Child Development Perspectives, 12(2), 93-97.

Fast, A. A. and Olson, K. R. (2018), Gender Development in Transgender Preschool Children. Child Dev, 89: 620-637. doi:10.1111/cdev.12758
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Durwood, L., McLaughlin, K.A., & Olson, K. R. (2017). Mental health and self-worth in Socially-Transitioned Transgender Children. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(2), 116-123.


Olson, K.R. (2016). Prepubescent transgender children: What we do and do not know. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(3), 155-156.e3

Olson, K.R., Durwood, L., DeMeules, M., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Mental health of transgender children who are supported in their identities. Pediatrics, 137 (3), 1-8.

Olson, K.R., Durwood, L, DeMeules, M., & McLaughlin, K.A. (2016). Author response to McKean, VandeVoort, and Croarkin. Pediatrics, 138(1), e20161203B.

Dunham, Y., & Olson, K. R. (2016). Beyond discrete categories: Studying multiracial, intersex, and transgender children will strengthen our science. Journal of Cognition and Development, 17(4), 642-665.


Olson, K.R., Key, A. C., & Eaton, N. R. (2015). Gender cognition in transgender children. Psychological Science, 26, 467-474.

Social Bias

Glazier, J. J., Gomez, E. M., & Olson, K. R. (2021). The association between prejudice toward and essentialist beliefs about transgender people. Collabra: Psychology. 7(1).

Atwood, S., & Axt, J. R. (2021). Assessing implicit attitudes about androgyny. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 96, 104162. 
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Enright, E. A., Alonso, D. J., Lee, B. M., & Olson, K. R. (2020). Children’s Understanding and Use of Four Dimensions of Social Status. Journal of Cognition and Development, 1-30.
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Hagá, S., & Olson, K. R. (2017). Knowing-it-all but still learning: Perceptions of one’s own knowledge and belief revision. Developmental Psychology, 53(12), 2319-2332.

Hagá, S., Olson, K. R., & Garcia-Marques, L. (2018). The Bias Blind Spot Across Childhood. Social Cognition36(6), 671-708.

Rae, J. R., & Olson, K.R. (2018). Test-retest reliability and predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test in Children. Developmental Psychology, 54(2), 308-330.

Olson, K.R., & Enright, E. (2018). Do transgender children (gender) stereotype more or less than their peers and siblings? Developmental Science, 21(4), e12606.

Olson, K.R., Lambert, A. J., & Zacks, J. M. (2004). Graded structure and the speed of category verification: On the moderating effects of anticipatory control for social vs. nonsocial categories. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 239-246.

Olson, K.R., Banaji, M. R., Dweck, C. S., & Spelke, E. S. (2006). Children’s bias against lucky vs. unlucky people and their social groups. Psychological Science, 17, 845-846.

Mazzocco, P.J., Brock, T.C., Brock, G.J., Olson, K.R., & Banaji, M.R. (2006). The cost of being Black: White Americans’ perceptions and the question of reparations. Du Bois ReviewSocial Science Research on Race,3 , 261-297.

Banaji, M. R., Baron, A., Dunham, Y., & Olson, K. R. (2008). The development of intergroup social cognition: Early emergence, implicit nature and sensitivity to group status. In M. Killen and S. R. Levy (Eds.) Intergroup Attitudes and Relations in Childhood Through Adulthood. (pp. 87-104). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., Olson, K. R., Chugh, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 36-88.

Olson, K. R., Dunham, Y., Dweck, C.S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2008). Judgments of the lucky across development and culture. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology94, 757-776.

Olson, K. R., & Dunham, Y. (2010). The development of implicit social cognition. In B. Gawronski & B. K. Payne (Eds). Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition. (pp 241-254). Guilford Press.

Olson, K. R., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2011). Children’s responses to group-based inequalities: Perpetuation and rectification. Social Cognition, 29, 271-288.

Olson, K. R., Shutts, K., Kinzler, K. D., & Weisman, K. G. (2012). Children associate racial groups with social class: Evidence from South Africa. Child Development, 83, 1884-1899.

Newheiser, A., & Olson, K. R. (2012). White and Black children’s implicit intergroup bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 264-270.

Olson, K. R., Heberlein, A. S., Kensinger, E., Burrows, C., Dweck, C. S., Spelke, E. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2013). The role of forgetting in undermining good intentions. PlosONE, 8 (11), e79091. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079091

Hailey, S., & Olson, K. R. (2013). A social psychologist’s guide to the development of racial bias. Social and Personality Psychology Compass,7(7), 457-469.

Newheiser, A. & Olson, K. R. (2014). Is the inherence heuristic needed to understand system justifying tendencies among children? Commentary. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(5), 496-497.

Newheiser, A., Dunham, Y., Merrill, A., Hoosain, L., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Preference for High Status Predicts Implicit Outgroup Bias Among Children From Low-Status Groups. Developmental Psychology, 50 , 1081-1090.

Li, V., Spitzer, B., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Preschoolers reduce inequality while favoring advantaged individuals. Child Development, 85, 1123-1133.

Horwitz, S., Shutts, K., & Olson, K.R. (2014). Social class differences produce social group preferences. Developmental Science, 17, 991-1002.

Dunham, Y., Newheiser, A., Hoosain, L., ^Merrill, A., & Olson, K. R. (2014). From a different vantage: Intergroup attitudes among children from low- and intermediate-status racial groups. Social Cognition, 32, 1-21.

Rae, J. R., Newheiser, A., & Olson, K. R. (2015). Diversity and implicit race bias in the United States. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 535-543.

Shutts, K., Brey, E. L., Dornbusch, L. A., Slywotzky, N., & Olson, K. R. (2016). Children use wealth cues to evaluate others. PLOS One, 11 (3), e0149360.

Skinner, A.L., Meltzoff, A.N., & Olson, K.R. (2017). “Catching” social bias: Exposure to biased nonverbal signals creates social biases in preschool children. Psychological Science, 28(2), 216-224.

Prosocial Behavior

Enright, E. A., Alonso, D. J., Lee, B. M., & Olson, K. R. (2020). Children’s Understanding and Use of Four Dimensions of Social Status. Journal of Cognition and Development, 1-30.

Olson, K. R., & Spelke, E. S. (2008). Foundations of cooperation in preschool children. Cognition, 108, 222-231.

Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2012). Children discard a resource to avoid inequality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General141, 382-395.

Shaw, A., DeScioli, P., & Olson, K. R. (2012). Fairness versus favoritism in children. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 736-745.

Leimgruber, K. L., Shaw, A., Santos, L. R., & Olson, K. R. (2012) Young children are more generous when others are aware of their actions. PLoS ONE, 7(10): e48292. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048292

Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2013, July 13). All inequality is not equal: Children correct inequalities by using resource value. Frontiers in Emotion Science.

Martin, A., & Olson, K. R. (2013). When kids know better: Paternalistic helping in 3-year-old children. Developmental Psychology, 49(11), 2071-2081. doi: 10.1037/a0031715

Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Fairness as partiality aversion: The development of procedural justice in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 119, 40-53.

Shaw, A., Montinari, N, Piovesan, M, Olson, K. R., Gino, F., & Norton, M. I. (2014). Children develop a veil of fairness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 363-375.

Leimgruber, K. L., Ward, A. F., Widness, J., Norton, M. I., Olson, K. R., Gray, K., & Santos, L. R. (2014). Give what you get: Capuchin monkeys (Cebus paella) and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes to conspecifics. PlosONE, 9(1): e87035 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087035.

Martin, A. & Olson, K. R. (2015). Beyond good and evil: What motivations underlie children’s prosocial behavior. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 159-175.

Martin, A. Lin, K., & Olson, K. R. (2016). What you want vs. what’s good for you: Paternalistic motivation in children’s helping behavior. Child Development, 87(6), 1739-1746.

Beck, L.A., Clark, M. S., & Olson, K.R. (2017). When do we offer more support than we seek? A conceptual replication and developmental extension. Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 34(5), 662-675
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Intellectual Property

Hill, B. M., Monroy Hernandez, A., & Olson, K. R. (2010). Responses to remixing on a social media sharing website. Proceedings of 4th International Association for the Artificial ICWSM (pp. 74-81.) Retrieved from

Olson, K. R. & Shaw, A. (2011). “No fair, Copycat!”: What children’s response to plagiarism tells us about their understanding of ideas. Developmental Science, 14, 431-439.

Shaw, A., Li, V., & Olson, K. R. (2012). Children apply principles of physical ownership to ideas. Cognitive Science, 36, 1383-1403.

Li, V., Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2013). Ideas versus labor: What do children value in artistic creation? Cognition127, 38-45.

Yang, F., Shaw, A., Garduno, E., & Olson, K. R. (2014). No one likes a copy-cat: A cross-cultural investigation of children’s response to plagiarism. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 121, 111-119.

Shaw, A., & Olson, K. R. (2015). Whose idea is it anyway?: The importance of reputation in acknowledgement. Developmental Science, 18, 502-509.

Fast, A., Olson, K.R., & Mandel, G. N. (2016). Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights. Law and Human Behavior, 40(4), 458-476.
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Mandel, G. N., Fast, A. A., & Olson, K. R. (2016). Intellectual Property Law’s Plagiarism Fallacy. Brigham Young University Law Review, 915-983.
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Fast, A. A., Olson, K.R., & Mandel, G. N. (2017). Intuitive intellectual property law: A nationally-representative test of the plagiarism fallacy. Plos One12(9), e0184315 doi:
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Olson, K. R. & Dweck, C. S. (2008). A blueprint for social cognitive development. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 193-202.

Dunham, Y., & Olson, K. R. (2008). The importance of origins: Why cognitive development is central to a mature understanding of social cognition. The Open Psychology Journal, 1, 59-65.

Olson, K. R. & Dweck, C. S. (2009). Social cognitive development: A new look. Child Development Perspectives, 3, 60-65.

Olson, K. R., & Shutts, K. (2010). Social cognitive development. In I. B. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds). Corsini’s Encyclopedia of Psychology. (pp 1621-1623). John Wiley and Sons.

Lambert, A.J., Scherer, L, Schott, J.P., Olson, K. R., Andrews, R. O’Brien, T., & Zisser, A. (2010). Rally effects, threat, and attitude change: An integrative approach to understanding the role of emotion.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 886-903.

Shaw, A., Li, V., & Olson, K. R. (2013). Reputation is everything. In M.R. Banaji & S. Gelman (Eds). Navigating the Social World: What infants, children, and other species can teach us. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hagá, S., Garcia-Marques, L., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Too young to correct: A developmental test of the three-stage model of person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 994-1012.

Roediger, H. L., Meade, M. L., Gallo, D. A., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Bartlett revisited: Direct comparison of repeated reproduction and serial reproduction techniques. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 266-271.

Haga, S., & Olson, K.R. (2017). “If I only had a little humility, I would be perfect”: Children’s and adults’ perceptions of intellectually arrogant, humble, and diffident people. Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(1), 87-98.